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Ambient-temperature liquid jet targets for high-repetition-rate HED discovery science

Nov 27, 2023. Publications

Abstract

High-power lasers can generate energetic particle beams and astrophysically relevant pressure and temperature states in the high-energy-density (HED) regime. Recently-commissioned high-repetition-rate (HRR) laser drivers are capable of producing these conditions at rates exceeding 1 Hz. However, experimental output from these systems is often limited by the difficulty of designing targets that match these repetition rates. To overcome this challenge, we have developed tungsten microfluidic nozzles, which produce a continuously replenishing jet that operates at flow speeds of approximately 10 m/s and can sustain shot frequencies up to 1 kHz. The ambient-temperature planar liquid jets produced by these nozzles can have thicknesses ranging from hundreds of nanometers to tens of micrometers. In this work, we illustrate the operational principle of the microfluidic nozzle and describe its implementation in a vacuum environment. We provide evidence of successful laser-driven ion acceleration using this target and discuss the prospect of optimizing the ion acceleration performance through an in situ jet thickness scan. Future applications for the jet throughout HED science include shock compression and studies of strongly heated nonequilibrium plasmas. When fielded in concert with HRR-compatible laser, diagnostic, and active feedback technology, this target will facilitate advanced automated studies in HRR HED science, including machine learning-based optimization and high-dimensional statistical analysis.

Publication Link: https://aip.scitation.org/doi/10.1063/5.0097857

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